Elizabeth Anne Holmes (born February 3, 1984) is an American former businesswoman who was the founder and chief executive of Theranos, a now-defunct health technology company.
Theranos soared in valuation after the company claimed to have revolutionized blood testing by developing testing methods that could use surprisingly small volumes of blood, such as from a fingerprick.
By 2015, Forbes had named Holmes the youngest and wealthiest self-made female billionaire in America on the basis of a $9-billion valuation of her company.
The next year, following revelations of potential fraud about Theranos's claims, Forbes had revised its published estimate of Holmes's net worth to zero, and Fortune had named her one of the "World's Most Disappointing Leaders".
The decline of Theranos began in 2015, when a series of journalism and regulatory investigations revealed doubts about the company's technology claims and whether Holmes had misled investors and the government.
In 2018, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charged Theranos and Holmes with deceiving investors by "massive fraud" through false or exaggerated claims about the accuracy of the company's blood-testing technology; Holmes settled the charges by paying a $500,000 fine, returning 18.9 million shares to the company, relinquishing her voting control of Theranos, and being barred from serving as an officer or director of a public company for ten years.