As a matter of fact, the Earth is of a certain size with a fixed amount of materials. Thus, from a fundamentalist point of view, the extraction, use and discarding of non-renewable raw materials lessens the amount available for future use.
This is a fundamentalist position based primarily on the supposition that all resources have been discovered.
To take just one example, the total amount of gold produced in the world is about 187 kt (World Gold Council website 2017). No one is suggesting that we are running out of gold. No, geology is not the problem.
Over the past 50 years we have witnessed many transient shortages of materials such as germanium, gold, zinc, rare earths, and even iron, as well as those others listed in the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) reports.
In parallel with this is the changing demand for materials and the use of substitutes, e.g. hematite was substituted for 20% of the barite in drilling mud, fluorspar was in high demand in the steel industry during the 1970s and mines opened and closed due to major price variations.
In the latter case, due to recent increase in demand, fluorspar is now designated as a CRM. Demand for, and the price of, gold has fluctuated widely during the past 50 years; copper prices rose and fell with economic activity; iron ore prices rose rapidly for a period in the late 20th century due to demand, principally, from China; all are examples of supply and demand.